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The Hall-mark of Quality

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July, 1915

Number 1

PRESS OF PLIMPTON MANUFACTURING CO.

division Hartford, Conn.

GIFT AUTHOR

SEP 8 'a

A MESSAGE

TO OUR INDUSTRIAL FAMILY.

From the "G. M."

Many firms and corporations publish so- called house organs. Some are intended to reach the trade, others to reach only their employees. Many times I have^asked myself the question, would a house organ (so called) have any value for the members of our indus- trial family. There are many such publica- tions but few, it has seemed to me, have a real value and I have often wondered if they were worth their cost.

I do not remember ever to have seen just such a publication as I have had in mind, which was intended only for the employees, but the thought has grown on me that a house organ which had a purpose, to reach perhaps not all the employees at first, but the Mana- gers, Assistant Managers, Superintendents, Ass't Superintendents, Salesmen, Foremen and the more prominent employees in the offices and factories, might be worth while. What might be called, if you please, the line and staff officers of our industrial family. Later this list could be extended to include such others as might express a desire to be included, and my hope would be that many would so desire.

This publication should not be a collection of gossip. It should say something worth while. One issue might be short and another

long, and nothing in it should ever be written simply to fill space and it should not be issued at all unless it had a helpful message. I do not think its issue must of necessity be regular, though regularity of issue might have some advantages; one month there might be one issue and another month two issues and the next month perhaps none at all. It might not always deal entirely or directly with the commercial business of the company. In fact, I can conceive of such a publication as having a distinct value just to take a person's thought, for the time being, away from the business of the company and make him think of something beside the shop. For example, such letters as I wrote home on my trip to South America in 1913, and as Mr. Wm. 0. Day has just written from New Orleans, San Antonio, Los Angeles and San Francisco, Seattle, etc., would find a place in such a publication and would have an interested circle of readers.

I do not think I can better describe just what I have had in mind for a number of years, than to repeat a conversation which I had with a gentleman some four or five years ago. I was asked to join an organiza- tion, and declined, saying I belonged to too many organizations now, and I was not going to join any more. But I said I would like to belong to an aggregation (which is different from an organization) which has no Presi- dent, Secretary, Treasurer, Board of Direc- tors, no annual meeting or annual dues, com- posed of say about a dozen or fifteen kindred souls, each one of whom would, if he had

A MESSAGE

TO OUR INDUSTRIAL FAMILY.

From the "G. M."

Many firms and corporations publish so- called house organs. Some are intended to reach the trade, others to reach only their employees. Many times I have asked myself the question, would a house organ (so called) have any value for the members of our indus- trial family. There are many such publica- tions but few, it has seemed to me, have a real value and I have often wondered if they were worth their cost.

I do not remember ever to have seen just such a publication as I have had in mind, which was intended only for the employees, but the thought has grown on me that a house organ which had a purpose, to reach perhaps not all the employees at first, but the Mana- gers, Assistant Managers, Superintendents, Ass't Superintendents, Salesmen, Foremen and the more prominent employees in the offices and factories, might be worth while. What might be called, if you please, the line and stafj officers of our industrial family. Later this list could be extended to include such others as might express a desire to be included, and my hope would be that many would so desire.

This publication should not be a collection of gossip. It should say something worth while. One issue might be short and another

long, and nothing in it should ever be written simply to fill space and it should not be issued at all unless it had a helpful message. I do not think its issue must of necessity be regular, though regularity of issue might have some advantages; one month there might be one issue and another month two issues and the next month perhaps none at all. It might not always deal entirely or directly with the commercial business of the company. In fact, I can conceive of such a publication as having a distinct value just to take a person's thought, for the time being, away from the business of the company and make him think of something beside the shop. For example, such letters as I wrote home on my trip to South America in 1913, and as Mr. Wm. 0. Day has just written from New Orleans, San Antonio, Los Angeles and San Francisco, Seattle, etc., would find a place in such a publication and would have an interested circle of readers.

I do not think I can better describe just what I have had in mind for a number of years, than to repeat a conversation which I had with a gentleman some four or five years ago. I was asked to join an organiza- tion, and declined, saying I belonged to too many organizations now, and I was not going to join any more. But I said I would like to belong to an aggregation (which is different from an organization) which has no Presi- dent, Secretary, Treasurer, Board of Direc- tors, no annual meeting or annual dues, com- posed of say about a dozen or fifteen kindred souls, each one of whom would, if he had

seen a picture, heard a sermon or a lecture, had taken a walk or been fishing or hunting, heard a good story, had read a book, a poem or a newspaper or magazine article, would think of me and say "That would interest Mr. Logan ; I will write him a letter calling atten- tion to it." I would like to belong to that kind of an aggregation.

With such a publication any. member of our industrial family who had read a book, news- paper or magazine article which had inter- ested him or who felt moved to write, could bring his thoughts to the attention of the other members of our family, such a pub- lication would, it seems to me, be worth while.

About a year ago, by chance, I became ac- quainted with a man who was doing just that thing. I have so far never met him, though we have written one another a dozen times within a year. He is about thirty years of age. In his early youth he was intended for the priesthood, but when almost ready to enter the priesthood said: "No, that is not to be my field of labor." Why this decision? I do not know. I do not know that he himself knows, but he stopped and did not enter the priesthood. He is evidently a man of fine feeling and through all his writing there runs a strain of the spiritual (which we need today, the spiritual is in large measure too often crowded out of our lives by the commercial), and we need the spiritual to keep us true to the course. This man's writing is so perfectly natural that the spiritual seems never out of place, and there

is in all his writing "an accent as of Galilee." All his work, like all of ours, is not of the same quality it bears the mark of human imperfection. That is, perhaps, why it appeals to us; because it is human and bears the hall - mark of the human if it were perfect, it might be beyond us.

He has, as I understand it, a mailing list of perhaps thirty or forty men, all busy men and mostly men who are leaders in their particular fields of work, and to them he some- times writes, when the spirit moves, but not when it don't. How do I know? Because he has sometimes written me and has sent me carbons of his letters to other men. I under- stand he gets no money for the service, but he gets from some men letters which money could not buy, which give him a larger out- look on the problems of life, and from those letters he often gets uplift and inspiration for his work and a view from a new angle of vision.

I met, recently at a luncheon, a man from Detroit, Michigan, who is Henry Ford's personal publicity man; and as we ate our lunch I showed him a carbon of a letter which I had just received from this man, written to a friend of mine, who had been burning the candle at both ends; and when I named the man who wrote the letter he said "Why, he writes to our Mr. " naming a man who is one of the prominent men in the manage- ment of the Ford Company.

I give you below a copy of the letter re- ferred to above. I call it a gem:

"Feb. 24, 1915. "Dear Mr. T.:

"Under the glass on my desk over at the office (I am writing this at home), there is a little Eastern saying which was given me by my secretary one day when the gods seemed a bit unkind. She gave me a type- written copy with a thick red-pencil border around it. I give it to you because there may be times when it will help you as it has already helped me.

"THE DOG BARKS, BUT THE CARAVAN PASSES ON.

"And I have just been reading another eastern story of a king who wanted a legend emblazoned upon his royal shield which would stand for all time and apply to all things mortal. The wise men of the kingdom failed to find what was wanted. After some years a humble shepherd voiced a phrase which served. Brought into the court, he was for a moment amazed at the glitter of it all. But when asked to speak his thoughts he said: "AND THIS, TOO, SHALL PASS AWAY.

"Today I learned that a young friend of mine, whose rise in business had been most rapid, is down in Florida trying to recover from a nervous breakdown. I thought then, as I think now, of that old question: "WHAT DOTH IT PROFIT A MAN THAT HE GAIN THE WHOLE WORLD AND LOSE HIS OWN SOUL.

"Success in business, money in the bank, the record of great achievements, the repu-

tation of one who has driven himself to the heights of fame in his chosen field, cannot compensate one for the loss of contentment of spirit.

"Harriman is dead, and Morgan. And Napoleon. And Caesar. And Alexander. But the world goes on. 'Unless ye become as little children' and little children PLAY. I dare you to do the same.

"(Signed) T. D."

Such a letter might appear in one of our issues and many other worth-while things could find their way into such a publication.

I believe there are few industrial organiza- tions in which a stronger or more friendly family feeling exists than in our company. It is a good spirit to conserve and I incline to the opinion that this would be a helpful instrumentality along the line suggested. I would have it of such a size and shape as to readily fit the pocket so that when received it would never be laid down, but would be immediately "pocketed" for a later reading.

The Beginnings

of the Envelope Industry in the

United States.

Such a publication could be made the medium for carrying out a piece of work which has been in my mind for years; i. e., to write a brief historical sketch of the begin- nings of the envelope industry in this country. I have collected considerable data on that subject in regard to the constituent com- panies of the United States Envelope Co.

True, such data is fragmentary and the record will be imperfect, for most of the early actors in the drama have long since passed from the stage and both legend and memory must be drawn upon for the story. It will be my aim- not to make this story lengthy, but to make it very personal, dealing with the lives of the men who blazed the trail for us, who came after them; a human document, rather than a statistical or literary effort.

Makers of history do not usually write history. They are too busy to spend time recording that which to them form the com- monplace events in their lives.

It has been truly said : History is a record of every day but yesterday and of every generation but the present. Yesterday is so near to us that we do not usually consider its events as having more than a passing interest, but the events of yesterday and the day before are the foundations upon which we build today and upon which we will build tomorrow, and when we get far enough away from today, then, as we look back, we will find that the events of yesterday and the day before are of vital interest because they have been the foundation upon which all the future tomorrows will be reared.

History is always made twice, first in the rough by the people, who do things, but they do not know their work by that name; and second, by those who come later, i. e., the story tellers, poets, journalists and historians, who arrange the facts in order to bring out their significance. Someone has said that

history is always dependent on two things, curiosity and love. Only a country whose peo- ple love it and are curious about its past can have a history, for only in response to that love and curiosity will the facts be collected, arranged and interpreted, and so we would apply this thought to our industry. I have loved the envelope business and will be glad, as a labor of love, to record some fragments of its early history with reminiscences of the early pioneers. This early history of the envelope business ought to be preserved, at least as much of it as it is possible to preserve, and it will only be preserved by those who know it and are willing to give the time and thought necessary to preserve it, and do it now.

Some years ago a man in this country desired to obtain information concerning the building of the Union Pacific Railroad, but he was unable to find anything but the most fragmentary reports of that mighty under- taking by which one of the bands of steel which binds the east to the west was forged.

The men who were doing that work were not members of historical societies and were too busy with other duties to write essays or books, and not many of them were by education fitted to do that kind of work. They were earning their daily bread, perform- ing their daily tasks, cutting through the mountains of the west, making the highway for industrial and commercial progress, and while they were not writing history they were doing something larger; thus, they were

10

making history, although they did not call their work by that name. Having finished their work, it has been left, and will be left, for the historian of the future who will come after them to collect and write up from the fragmentary data which they have left behind _ the record of what they accomplished . The thing that lives in history is not the event it is the written account of it that lives. And when the record of the other men's doings have been made, other men^will be inspired by the record of their deeds to try to do as large or larger things.

A few years ago we celebrated in this coun- try the one-hundredth anniversary of the birth of the steamboat. On that day in the distant and shadowy past, a certain man named Robert Fulton, of whom the world up to that time had heard but little, but of whom in later years the world was to hear much, and to whom the world is under an obliga- tion, which till the end of time can never be discharged, started up the Hudson River in a boat propelled by steam. And while there were quite a number of newspapers pub- lished in New York at that time, in a recent newspaper account of that day's work it was stated that only one of the newspapers made any reference to the matter whatever, and that one devoted less than a dozen lines to the affair. We needed the perspective of a hundred years to catch the full significance of what was done that day, and yet these men thought but little of the fact that they were making history, and the record of that eventful day's work which was to change

31

the ocean into a ferry crossing and make the nations of the world neighbors, would have been lost had it not been preserved by the historian.

What a contribution to the future and what an honor to the past if in every city of our land the history of each separate invention and the history of the development of each industry could be intelligently and sympa- thetically written? But there would be chap- ters which would read not like a romance but like a tragedy, and yet we of today are not conscious of our debt to those men who laid the foundations on which we have been permitted to build because the historian has not yet written up the record ; and if it is not written now it never can be written, for soon all who have a knowledge of the beginnings will have passed to the great beyond.

We need the historian to follow the doers of the world's work to make the record of what has been done and the steps by which the advances have been made. But we are living in a busy, busy day, and the burden of the present with planning for the future crowds out the past and we hurry on. Indus- try is a modern institution and history has little to do with modern institutions.

What an interesting story could be written about every industry in this country, and it would not be confined to things mechanical, for that word industry covers the whole range of human effort and the record would not be complete when the story had been told of the man who had invented or doubled

12

the output of the machine. That record would also tell of the man who, by intelligent study, had doubled the potato and grain crops the man who had conquered this or that pest which destroyed the farmers' grain or fruit. The man who had improved the livestock of the nation and the man who by his studies in sanitation had decreased the death rate. These all have been indus- trious workers for the common good. They have been dreamers who have worked to make their dreams come true.

_ Did you ever stop to consider what mental vision is? that it is not the eye, but the mind, which sees. The engineer through the mind by faith which the great apostle in that wonderful, that inspired, definition says is: "The substance of things hoped for; the evidence of things not seen," saw the bridge which spans the river even before pencil had been put upon paper.

In the realm of science men say: "The thing I am looking for is there," and with the eye of faith looking for it they find it.

In like manner the inventor with the eye of faith sees the machine which is to lighten human toil; and so the bridge, the scientific discovery and the machine, are no longer visions, but realities.

Then reaching down below the level of the^ machine, thousands have been lifted to a higher level for the inventive and construc- tive ability which makes possible the machine, never educates men and women down to operate it, but when once the machine has

been invented and constructed then other men and women are educated up to operate the machine, and it is a distinct advance to that class of operatives.

The studies of grammar, rhetoric, poetry and the ancient classics, were formerly referred to as the "Humanities," but the true students of the "Humanities" in our day are the men who are carrying on the work of the world which makes possible the advance of civiliza- tion. In their ranks are found the pioneers and pathfinders of commercial and indus- trial progress. The builders of railroads, bridges, ships, sewers, reservoirs, the inven- tors and builders of machinery, the men who are evolving new processes and methods of manufacture, and who are laboring to build up a better industrial system than the world has ever known before. These are the men who are to bring in the Kingdom of God on earth. They are the makers of history today and we believe they are to be increasingly so in the years to come.

History in the past has been in large meas- ure chiefly a record of war and strife and most of the names which stand out promi- nently have been those of the great generals and admirals. But the things which make a people great are not the wars of destruction, but the quiet, orderly lives of the working men and women who are engaged in pro- ductive industry. It is industry which pro- vides the sinews from which comes national power which make nations both strong and great. A nation is not great through its gen-

14

erals who kill and destroy, but through its engineers, architects, preachers, teachers, business and professional men, and the great mass of honest, God-fearing men and women who do the work of the world, and a nation will be great just in proportion as all these classes are inspired with an ideal and are workers for the common good.

After the present awful tragedy in Europe is ended and the nations of the world have taken an inventory of the losses of war, not measured by material standards of value, but in terms of blood, suffering and sorrow, of wounds that can never heal, the nations of the earth may decide that war shall end and, in the words of Robert Burns,

"Man to man the world o'er, Shall brithers be for a' that."

While the rivers of Europe run red with the blood of the best and the bravest of the sons of earth, it requires imagination and faith to visualize such a picture today.

If that day shall come, the history of the future will be the record of peaceful industry and the men whose names will be held in honor and loving remembrance will be those whose lives have been helpful to mankind, and who, out of the strain and stress of today, have made possible a better tomorrow; and the men who have been connected with our industry will have done their part in this work and the record of their work ought to be preserved.

What would be more interesting or inspir-

ing to us of today and to the men of the future than the record of the work of the men who laid the foundations of our industry? The inscription on the new Post Office building in Washington well describes the mission of the envelope:

"Carrier of news and knowledge, Instrument of trade and industry, Promoter of mutual acquaintance, Of peace and good will among men and nations.

"Messenger of sympathy and love, Servant of parted friends, Consoler of the lonely, Bond of the scattered family, Enlarger of the common life."

We ought to feel honored to have a part in the production of such a messenger of good will among men.

A Museum of the Envelope Industry.

Not only should the story of the work of the pioneers be preserved, but so far as possi- ble examples of their handiwork should also be preserved; and with that end in view we are having erected in connection with the Logan, Swift & Brigham Envelope Co. Divi- sion, at Worcester, Mass., a building in which a room is to be set apart for a museum in which, so far as we are able, will be collected

as many as possible of the old types of envel- ope machines which have served their day and have taken their places among the honored "has beens" of the envelope industry.

I have been able to secure photographs of many of the pioneer inventors and manufac- turers in our industry, and while the record cannot be complete, it is my hope with the co-operation of the other members of our craft to make the record asxomplete as possi- ble. Photographs have also been secured of some of the earlier types of envelope machines, which have gone the way of all the works of man. Some eight years ago, before they were packed up and taken to the basement of the Patent office, I had photographs taken of all the envelope machine models in the Patent office at Washington, D. C. These photographs of both men, machinery and models it is our intention to have reproduced in enlarged form to adorn the walls of this museum which will be a "Hall of Fame" for the pioneers of the envelope industry.

e In connection with the text of these brief historical sketches which are to be prepared, we will present reproductions of the photo- graphy of the men and machines which they loved into being. In some cases we will be able to show the factory buildings in which, in the day of smaller things, the life of our industry began.

It is our intention to send copies of our publication, "The Red Envelope," which contain these historical sketches, to all manu- facturers of envelopes, with the hope that

17

if any of them have items of interest con- nected with the beginnings of the industry, that they will contribute them to the end that as much as possible of the history of the beginnings may be preserved.

JAMES LOGAN,

General Manager.

18

as many as possible of the old types of envel- ope machines which have served their day and have taken their places among the honored "has beens" of the envelope industry.

I have been able .to secure photographs of many of the pioneer inventors and manufac- turers in our industry, and while the record cannot be complete, it is my hope with the co-operation of the other members of our craft to make the record as complete as possi- ble. Photographs have also been secured of some of the earlier types of envelope machines, which have gone the way of all the works of man. Some eight years ago, before they were packed up and taken to the basement of the Patent office, I had photographs taken of all the envelope machine models in the Patent office at Washington, D. C. These photographs of both men, machinery and models it is our intention to have reproduced in enlarged form to adorn the walls of this museum which will be a "Hall of Fame" for the pioneers of the envelope industry.

In connection with the text of these brief historical sketches which are to be prepared, we will present reproductions of the photo- graphs of the men and machines which they loved into being. In some cases we will be able to show the factory buildings in which, in the day of smaller things, the life of our industry began.

It is our intention to send copies of our publication, "The Red Envelope," which contain these historical sketches, to all manu- facturers of envelopes, with the hope that

17

if any of them have items of interest con- nected with the beginnings of the industry, that they will contribute them to the end that as much as possible of the history of the beginnings may be preserved.

JAMES LOGAN,

General Manager.

18

The Hall-mark of Quality

November, 1915 Number 3

PRESS OF PLIMPTON MANUFACTURING CO.

division Hartford, Conn.

The Story of the Envelope

by JAMES LOGAN, General Manager

United States Envelope Company

Worcester, Mass.

CHAPTER 1.

In the preface to Andrew Carnegie's life of James Watt, he says:

"When the publishers asked me to write the life of James Watt, I declined, stating that my thoughts were upon other matters. This settled the question, as I supposed, but in this I was mistaken. Why shouldn't I write the life of the discoverer of the steam engine, out of which I had made a fortune? Besides, I knew little of the history of the steam en- gine and of Watt himself, and the surest way to obtain knowledge was to comply with the publish- er's highly complimentary request. In short, the subject would not down, and finally I was compelled to write again, telling them that the idea haunted me, but if they still desired me to undertake it, I should do so with my heart in the task. I now know about the steam engine and have also had revealed to me one of the finest characters that ever graced the earth."

For many years I have had it in mind to write for our industrial family a brief story of the beginnings of the envelope industry in

the United States. In 1903-4-5 I collected considerable data bearing on the subject, but other matters, more pressing, demanded my time and thought, and so the matter for the time being had to be laid one side.

In 1908-9-10-11 I served my. city as Mayor and had no time during those four years to devote to other subjects, and at the end of my term of service I was in no condition, phys- ically, to undertake the work. But the subject would not down. It kept coming back to me; and, like Mr. Carnegie, I have felt that I had to do the job and, like him, also, "my heart would be in the task."

I know the record will be far from perfect, historically, for the data is fragmentary, as most of the early actors have long since passed from the stage and they left few records behind them, for they were not conscious that they were making history, and so both memory and legend must be drawn upon for the story.

It will be my aim to make the story per- sonal, dealing with the lives and the work of the men who laid the foundations upon which we of a later generation have been permitted to rear the superstructure of our industry to make the story a human document rather than a statistical or literary production.

It has been a pleasure to look back into the past and become even slightly acquainted with some of these early pioneers who lived and wrought, and some of whom failed to reach their goal, but who, by their work, made

possible the success of others, and to that extent they did not fail; and so we ought to hold their memory in honorable remembrance.

The development of industry, as well as many other problems of life, is much like a game of baseball the first important thing is to get to first base, and then second, and then third, but it is getting round to the home plate that counts in the final score. In base- ball a player sometimes reaches first base on a scratch hit, or on another player's error, then he gets to second on another player's sacrifice, i. e., a player who was willing to take the chances of being put out in order that the player on first base could get to second, and then he reaches the home plate, not because of exceptional work on his part, for he reached first base on a scratch hit, but because the man at the bat who "died at third" did a good piece of stickwork which permitted the base runner to bring in the run. The point I want to make is this : The work of the world is done not by the star players, playing for an individual record, but by teamwork; and so we should all be help- ful to one another, working for the common good, because we are all so dependent on one another and are all debtors to the men of the past.

Recently in conversation with a gentleman possessed with a high grade of inventive talent, mechanical skill and business ability, a rare combination to find in one man, and who claimed for himself all the credit for what he had been able to accomplish, I tried to

impress upon him the great truth which he and all of us are sometimes inclined to forget, i. e., that we are all debtors to the past, that the men away back in the dim and shadowy yes, forgotten past, who made the first wheel, gear, cam, spring and lever, helped to make possible the wonderful industrial devel- opment of the present, and they are today silent partners with us in all our enterprises, and even though they did not reach the goal of success, there is consolation in this thought :

"For when the one great scorer comes To write against our name He writes not that you lost or won, But how you played the game."

Grantland Rice.

In these brief historical sketches of the beginnings of our industry I shall try to reset the stage with the atmosphere of the time it recalls and shall try to picture as best I may those early conditions and also try to repro- duce "verbal pictures" of the personality of the characters who played their parts, so that the present generation of those in our industry may count them among their friends.

When was the Envelope Invented?

The question is often asked, "when were envelopes invented?" and it was an epoch- making invention. No one can definitely say, but the honor is claimed by a number of persons. In the year 1653, M. de Valayer, a Frenchman, under royal patronage, estab- lished in Paris a postal system for letters in

post-paid envelopes. It is claimed that there is preserved in the office of the British Secre- . tary of State an envelope in which was enclosed a letter dated May 16, 1696, written by Sir William Turnbull, Secretary of State, to Sir James Ogilvie, of London, England. In England, in 1714, Bishop Burnett makes use of the word "Envelope" as a wrapper or covering for a communication.

In 1726 Dean Swift, in his "Advice to Grub Street," says:

"Send these to 'paper sparing Pope,' * And when he sits to write, No letter with an envelope

Could give him more delight."

There are preserved in the British Museum, attached to the letters, the envelopes which were used in 1755 and 1760 for the transmission of two important government documents. But it is very evident that envelopes were not in common use, for there seems to be little or no reference to them for almost a hundred years. In 1825 Lamb mentions the envelope and in "Harry Lorrequer," published by Chas. Lever in 1837, we find this quotation: "The waiter entered with a small note in an envelope."

It is claimed that envelopes were used in France before they were used in England, and there seems to be good ground for the claim.

* This reference to "paper sparing Pope" is because Pope's celebrated translation of Homer (preserved in the British Mu- seum) is written almost entirely on the covers or wrappers of letters, as envelopes were first called.

When they first came into the French market they were very dainty novelties and made from the most expensive and delicate papers. They were used only by the wealthy and were considered a fad. They were first used in England between 1830 and 1839, but only in a very limited way.

It has been claimed that about the year 1830 a bookseller in Brighton, England, by the name of Brewer, made envelopes by hand, and that he was the first manufacturer of envelopes in Great Britain; but it is more than probable that there were quite a number who claimed to be the "first manufacturers" the same as we have had in our own country, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Louis- ville, Ky., each claiming that honor; but, as there is no one now living who can testify on the subject, and no authentic records are avail- able for proof, we simply state the several claims and leave the question open.

The use of an envelope in England called for double postage, the law then being that postage should be charged for the number of pieces of paper. The custom then prevailing was to fold the letter sheet to make it answer the purpose of an envelope, and on all folded note and letter papers the fourth page was left unruled, the object being to use the unruled page for the outside of the letter on which to write the address and, while the unruled fourth page no longer serves its original purpose, the old custom on ruled folded note and letter paper of leaving the fourth page unruled still prevails, though

probably very few of the younger generation could tell why the fourth page was left unruled.

On this page is pasted a sample showing one of the methods of folding and sealing the letter sheet before the day of envelopes.

Envelopes were first made by hand and the usual method of manufacture was this: A tin form was made the shape of the flat un- folded blank, the paper having been previously cut into lozenge- shaped pieces. This tin form was laid on perhaps twenty-five pieces of paper and a sharp shoemaker's knife followed round the edges of the tin form, thus cutting the blank. The blanks were then creased with a bone folder or thimble, pretty much the same as handfolded envelopes are still creased. The blanks were gummed by over- lapping and applying the gum with a brush to that portion which was to be stuck down to form the envelope, just as it would be done today. This work was done in small "book- shops" (as they were then called) on rainy days and when they had nothing else to do.

Many years ago I was told by a member of the firm of J. L. Fairbanks & Co., of Boston, successors to the firm of Josiah Loring & Co., which firm was established in 1798, that in those days, i. e., about the year 1840, they made in their store, in the manner described, all the envelopes that were sold in the city of Boston, Mass.

Mr. Edward N. Maxwell of Maxwell & Co., Stationers, Louisville, Ky., whose father moved from Philadelphia to Louisville, Ky., in 1831 and engaged in the printing and pub- lishing business, in connection with which he operated a small book and stationery store, told me over thirty years ago that when a boy, working in the store about the years 1835- 40, he cut out with his penknife in the man-

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ner described above and then folded in the J back room of their little "book shop" all the envelopes that were then sold in the city of Louisville, which at that time had a popu- lation of a little over 10,000.

I cite these two authentic cases to show the primitive conditions then existing. In New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and other cities, envelopes were made in this way as a side line for the local demand before anyone entered into the business of envelope making as a separate industry.

One of Mr. Maxwell's duties every morn- ing in those days was to go to the Post Office for the mail, taking with him money with which to pay the postage on letters which came collect, the postage ranging from six to twenty-five cents on a letter, the rate depending on the distance carried and the number of sheets in the letter.

In "those good old days of the past" there were no letter carriers and the man who would have suggested our present rural free delivery system would have been looked upon as a visionary.

When envelopes were first made, the sealing flaps were ungummed and were closed by applying at the point of the sealing flap a wafer or sealing wax.

I very much desired to find, if possible, some of the wafers formerly used for sealing the old form of folded letter-sheet